En cuanto comiences a hacer oraciones con el Present Perfect comprenderás porqué es importante saberse los "Past Participles" al dedillo.
1) Empieza por mirar este vídeo para aprender la teoría general sobre el "Present Perfect"
2) Continua con este otro vídeo.
Recuerda que es muy importante practicar hablando con el Present Perfect. Por ello, repite en voz alta los ejemplos que vayas escuchando en los vídeos.
Más teoría por si te quedan dudas.
3) Ahora tendrás que hacer muchos, muchos ejercicios.
Recuerda que siempre debes saber como suenan los verbos, así que pon cada uno de ellos en esta página y escucha varias veces su sonido.
4) Practica repitiendo las frases de los ejercicios del punto 3 en voz alta.
5) Vamos a aprender qué son las Wh-questions. Lee aquí la teoría y haz todos los ejercicios.
Escucha como suenan las Wh- questions aquí.
Otro vídeo para escuchar como suenan las Wh-questions.
Ejemplos con wh-questions en este vídeo.
6) Vamos a aprender vocabulario aquí. Haz frases con cada palabra nueva que aprendas. Recuerda: utiliza siempre howjsay para saber como suenan. Repite y repite las frases hasta que te canses.
7) Escucha esta historia y apréndetela de memoria. Fíjate como en los "Past Participles". Nota: Los audios de Super Easy Reading de rong-chang se pueden descargar introduciendo en el navegador o tu programa gestor de descargas direcciones como la siguiente:
Cambiando el "001" por el número de la lección que desees. Como ves, siempre con números de 3 cifras, completando con ceros por la izquierda.
8) Escribe una historia utilizando 10 a 15 oraciones en presente perfect. Coge ejemplos de los ejercicios del punto 3) y cambia los verbos. Utiliza afirmaciones, preguntas y negaciones. Comprueba tus oraciones buscándolas en Google y comparándolas a frases de nativos.
[has/have + past participle]
- You have seen that movie many times.
- Have you seen that movie many times?
- You have not seen that movie many times.
- Complete List of Present Perfect Forms
USE 1 Unspecified Time Before Now
We use the Present Perfect to say that an action happened at an unspecified time before now. The exact time is not important. You CANNOT use the Present Perfect with specific time expressions such as: yesterday, one year ago, last week, when I was a child, when I lived in Japan, at that moment, that day, one day, etc. We CAN use the Present Perfect with unspecific expressions such as: ever, never, once, many times, several times, before, so far, already, yet, etc.
- I have seen that movie twenty times.
- I think I have met him once before.
- There have been many earthquakes in California.
- People have traveled to the Moon.
- People have not traveled to Mars.
- Have you read the book yet?
- Nobody has ever climbed that mountain.
- A: Has there ever been a war in the United States?
B: Yes, there has been a war in the United States.
How Do You Actually Use the Present Perfect?
The concept of "unspecified time" can be very confusing to English learners. It is best to associate Present Perfect with the following topics:
TOPIC 1 Experience
You can use the Present Perfect to describe your experience. It is like saying, "I have the experience of..." You can also use this tense to say that you have never had a certain experience. The Present Perfect is NOT used to describe a specific event.
- I have been to France.
This sentence means that you have had the experience of being in France. Maybe you have been there once, or several times.
- I have been to France three times.
You can add the number of times at the end of the sentence.
- I have never been to France.
This sentence means that you have not had the experience of going to France.
- I think I have seen that movie before.
- He has never traveled by train.
- Joan has studied two foreign languages.
- A: Have you ever met him?
B: No, I have not met him.
TOPIC 2 Change Over Time
We often use the Present Perfect to talk about change that has happened over a period of time.
- You have grown since the last time I saw you.
- The government has become more interested in arts education.
- Japanese has become one of the most popular courses at the university since the Asian studies program was established.
- My English has really improved since I moved to Australia.
TOPIC 3 Accomplishments
We often use the Present Perfect to list the accomplishments of individuals and humanity. You cannot mention a specific time.
- Man has walked on the Moon.
- Our son has learned how to read.
- Doctors have cured many deadly diseases.
- Scientists have split the atom.
TOPIC 4 An Uncompleted Action You Are Expecting
We often use the Present Perfect to say that an action which we expected has not happened. Using the Present Perfect suggests that we are still waiting for the action to happen.
- James has not finished his homework yet.
- Susan hasn't mastered Japanese, but she can communicate.
- Bill has still not arrived.
- The rain hasn't stopped.
TOPIC 5 Multiple Actions at Different Times
We also use the Present Perfect to talk about several different actions which have occurred in the past at different times. Present Perfect suggests the process is not complete and more actions are possible.
- The army has attacked that city five times.
- I have had four quizzes and five tests so far this semester.
- We have had many major problems while working on this project.
- She has talked to several specialists about her problem, but nobody knows why she is sick.
Time Expressions with Present Perfect
When we use the Present Perfect it means that something has happened at some point in our lives before now. Remember, the exact time the action happened is not important.
Sometimes, we want to limit the time we are looking in for an experience. We can do this with expressions such as: in the last week, in the last year, this week, this month, so far, up to now, etc.
- Have you been to Mexico in the last year?
- I have seen that movie six times in the last month.
- They have had three tests in the last week.
- She graduated from university less than three years ago. She has worked for three different companies so far.
- My car has broken down three times this week.
"Last year" and "in the last year" are very different in meaning. "Last year" means the year before now, and it is considered a specific time which requires Simple Past. "In the last year" means from 365 days ago until now. It is not considered a specific time, so it requires Present Perfect.
- I went to Mexico last year.
I went to Mexico in the calendar year before this one.
- I have been to Mexico in the last year.
I have been to Mexico at least once at some point between 365 days ago and now.
USE 2 Duration From the Past Until Now (Non-Continuous Verbs)
With Non-Continuous Verbs and non-continuous uses of Mixed Verbs, we use the Present Perfect to show that something started in the past and has continued up until now. "For five minutes," "for two weeks," and "since Tuesday" are all durations which can be used with the Present Perfect.
- I have had a cold for two weeks.
- She has been in England for six months.
- Mary has loved chocolate since she was a little girl.
Although the above use of Present Perfect is normally limited to Non-Continuous Verbs and non-continuous uses of Mixed Verbs, the words "live," "work," "teach," and "study" are sometimes used in this way even though they are NOT Non-Continuous Verbs.
The examples below show the placement for grammar adverbs such as: always, only, never, ever, still, just, etc.
- You have only seen that movie one time.
- Have you only seen that movie one time?
- Affirmative Sentences (Frases afirmativas)
- Negative Sentences (Frases negativas)
- Interrogative Sentences (Frases interrogativas)
Se usa el presente perfecto para acciones que ocurrieron en un tiempo no concreto antes de ahora. El tiempo específico no es importante. Por lo tanto, no solemos usar expresiones de tiempo específicas ("this morning", "yesterday", "last year"...) con el presente perfecto. Se puede usar el presente perfecto con expresiones de tiempo no concretas ("never", "ever", "many times", "for", "since", "already", "yet"...). Este concepto de tiempo no específico es bastante difícil de comprender, por este motivo, a continuación tienes los usos particulares del presente perfecto.
- Se usa el presente perfecto para describir una experiencia. No lo usamos para acciones específicas.
- Se utiliza el presente perfecto para un cambio en el tiempo.
- Se usa para los exitosos.
- Usamos el presente perfecto para acciones que todavía no han sucedido. El uso del presente perfecto en estos casos indica que aún estamos esperando la acción, por eso, frecuentemente usamos los adverbios "yet" y "still".
- Se utiliza el presente perfecto para hablar sobre acciones en diferentes momentos en el pasado. El uso del presente perfecto en estos casos indica que son posibles más acciones en el futuro.
- En general, usamos el presente perfecto continuo para situaciones que han empezado en el pasado pero siguen en el presente. Pero como hemos visto, hay unos verbos que no podemos usar en los tiempos continuos. En estos casos, usamos el presente perfecto.
ACTIVE / PASSIVE
- Many tourists have visited that castle. Active
- That castle has been visited by many tourists. Passive