miércoles, 13 de octubre de 2010

Preposiciones: lugar y tiempo

In - dentro de… - he’s in de car.
On - sobre - it´s on the table.
Under - debajo - it’s under the table.
Behind - detrás - it’s behind the lamp.
Near - cerca de - it’s near the lamp.
Between - entre - it’s between the box and the lamp.
In front of - delante de - it’s in front of the lamp.
Opposite - en frente de - the cinema is opposite the restaurant.
At - junto a - at the door
- Se usa cuando se mencionan lugares sin dimensiones, como punto de referencia:
I’m at the bus-stop - she’s at the door.
Y también cuando nos referimos a un lugar por la actividad que se realiza en él.
Ana is at the seaside - my sister is at the bank.


USO DE LAS PREPOSICIONES
Las preposiciones pueden realizar distintas funciones:
- Servir de enlace entre dos palabras o distintos elementos en la oración:
I'll see you at five o'clock / Te veré a las cinco
- Pueden acompañar a un verbo sirviendo de enlace a su complemento. En este caso, pueden no alterar el significado del verbo o alterarlo con lo que constituyen una palabra distinta.
To look / Mirar (no altera el significado del verbo)
To look after / Cuidar de (se altera el significado del verbo)
- Cuando ponemos un verbo después de una preposición, en inglés normalmente se utiliza la forma ' ing' y no el infinitivo.
You shouldn’t go to India without visiting the Taj Mahal.
No deberías ir a la India sin visitar el Taj Mahal.
I’m interested in studying psychology. / Estoy interesado en estudiar psicología.

Las principales preposiciones en inglés son:






about alrededor de, sobre above por encima de
after detrás de, después de among entre (tres o más)
at en, junto a before antes de, delante de
behind detrás de below debajo de
beneath debajo de beside junto a
between entre (dos o más) but excepto, pero
by por, junto a down hacia abajo
except excepto for para, por, durante, desde hace
from de, desde in en, dentro de
into en, adentro like como, igual a
near cerca de of de
off de (alejándose), fuera de on en, sobre
over por encima de, al otro lado since desde
through a través de throughout por todo
till = until hasta to a, hasta, hacia
under por debajo de up hacia arriba
upon (poniendo) sobre, encima with con
without sin

POSICIÓN DE LAS PREPOSICIONES
Generalmente, se colocan delante del sustantivo o del pronombre, excepto en los siguientes casos:
a.) Con el pronombre relativo, cuando va seguido de preposición, ésta puede colocarse en la posición final.
The girls I study with / Las muchachas con las que estudio (en lugar de: The girls with whom I study)
b.) En frases interrogativas cuando empiezan por un pronombre interrogativo:
Who were you speaking to? / ¿con quién estabas hablando? (en lugar de: To whom were you speaking?)

The dog is on the sofa
The lamp is near the dog
The cat is in front of the dog

LA PREPOSICIÓN Y LA CONTRACCIÓN
La contracción española, es decir, la fusión de una preposición con el artículo definido (al, del) no existen en inglés. Se traducen siempre por la preposición seguida del artículo definido y separado de ella (al = a el) (del = de el):
Tell it to the chairman / Dígaselo al presidente


Prepositions of Place: at, in, on

In general, we use:
  • at for a POINT
  • in for an ENCLOSED SPACE
  • on for a SURFACE
atinon
POINTENCLOSED SPACESURFACE
at the cornerin the gardenon the wall
at the bus stopin Londonon the ceiling
at the doorin Franceon the door
at the top of the pagein a boxon the cover
at the end of the roadin my pocketon the floor
at the entrancein my walleton the carpet
at the crossroadsin a buildingon the menu
at the front desk in a caron a page
Look at these examples:
  • Jane is waiting for you at the bus stop.
  • The shop is at the end of the street.
  • My plane stopped at Dubai and Hanoi and arrived in Bangkok two hours late.
  • When will you arrive at the office?
  • Do you work in an office?
  • I have a meeting in New York.
  • Do you live in Japan?
  • Jupiter is in the Solar System.
  • The author's name is on the cover of the book.
  • There are no prices on this menu.
  • You are standing on my foot.
  • There was a "no smoking" sign on the wall.
  • I live on the 7th floor at 21 Oxford Street in London.
Notice the use of the prepositions of place at, in and on in these standard expressions:
atinon
at homein a caron a bus
at workin a taxion a train
at schoolin a helicopteron a plane
at universityin a boaton a ship
at collegein a lift (elevator)on a bicycle, on a motorbike
at the topin the newspaperon a horse, on an elephant
at the bottomin the skyon the radio, on television
at the sidein a rowon the left, on the right
at receptionin Oxford Streeton the way


Prepositions of Time: at, in, on

We use:
  • at for a PRECISE TIME
  • in for MONTHS, YEARS, CENTURIES and LONG PERIODS
  • on for DAYS and DATES
atinon
PRECISE TIMEMONTHS, YEARS, CENTURIES and LONG PERIODSDAYS and DATES
at 3 o'clockin Mayon Sunday
at 10.30amin summeron Tuesdays
at noonin the summeron 6 March
at dinnertimein 1990on 25 Dec. 2010
at bedtimein the 1990son Christmas Day
at sunrisein the next centuryon Independence Day
at sunsetin the Ice Ageon my birthday
at the momentin the past/futureon New Year's Eve
Look at these examples:
  • I have a meeting at 9am.
  • The shop closes at midnight.
  • Jane went home at lunchtime.
  • In England, it often snows in December.
  • Do you think we will go to Jupiter in the future?
  • There should be a lot of progress in the next century.
  • Do you work on Mondays?
  • Her birthday is on 20 November.
  • Where will you be on New Year's Day?
Notice the use of the preposition of time at in the following standard expressions:
ExpressionExample
at nightThe stars shine at night.
at the weekendI don't usually work at the weekend.
at Christmas/EasterI stay with my family at Christmas.
at the same timeWe finished the test at the same time.
at presentHe's not home at present. Try later.
Notice the use of the prepositions of time in and on in these common expressions:
inon
in the morningon Tuesday morning
in the morningson Saturday mornings
in the afternoon(s)on Sunday afternoons
in the evening(s)on Monday evening
When we say last, next, every, this we do not also use at, in, on.
  • I went to London last June. (not in last June)
  • He's coming back next Tuesday. (not on next Tuesday)
  • I go home every Easter. (not at every Easter)
  • We'll call you this evening. (not in this evening)



Prepositions of Place:

Where is the mouse?


En este ejercicio aparecerán aleatoriamente 10 frases en inglés y deberás seleccionar entre cuatro opciones la preposición correcta que completa la frase.  

The team arrived ___ Madrid. in on towards among
He was taken ___ a doctor. with by for from
He looks ___ me with admiration. to in at on
They sat ___ a table near the window. at in on from
My girlfriend comes ___ Barcelona. of into towards from
I have work to do ___ the morning at in on while
___ your age, you should sleep more. during for at from
I am going to the cinema ___ my sister on without with at
The woman had problems ___ her pregnancy. from of in at
The husband talked ___ his wife problems. at from to of
 
The team arrived ___ Madrid. in on towards among in
He was taken ___ a doctor. with by for from for
He looks ___ me with admiration. to in at on at
They sat ___ a table near the window. at in on from at
My girlfriend comes ___ Barcelona. of into towards from from
I have work to do ___ the morning at in on while in
___ your age, you should sleep more. during for at from from
I am going to the cinema ___ my sister on without with at with
The woman had problems ___ her pregnancy. from of in at in
The husband talked ___ his wife problems. at from to of of

 Mas ejercicios
If you are tired, you should stay ___ bed. at of by in
He was ___ his way home. at on as by
They came from Madrid ___ car. on by to in
The sky was dark ___ now. at on in by
My son insits ___ watching TV. in for on into
___ a few days he will leave the city. from until in at
He sat down ___ the table. in into for at
He succeeded ___ his third attempt. on in for by
The police was interested ___ the car stolen. into in on by
The plane was ___ the way to Barcelona. in on by into

 
If you are tired, you should stay ___ bed. at of by in in
He was ___ his way home. at on as by on
They came from Madrid ___ car. on by to in by
The sky was dark ___ now. at on in by by
My son insits ___ watching TV. in for on into on
___ a few days he will leave the city. from until in at in
He sat down ___ the table. in into for at at
He succeeded ___ his third attempt. on in for by in
The police was interested ___ the car stolen. into in on by in
The plane was ___ the way to Barcelona. in on by into on



Elige el significado correcto. 
1. after
2. behind
3. above
4. through
5. up
6. under
7. between
8. about
9. with
10. from

1. after = después de
2. behind = detrás de
3. above = por encima de
4. through = a través de
5. up = hacia arriba
6. under = por debajo de
7. between = entre (dos o más)
8. about = alrededor de
9. with = con
10. from = desde

Lee las siguientes frases, y escribe otra frase con un significado parecido a la primera. 
Sigue el ejemplo.
You must drink water to live. / You can’t live without drinking water.

1 He plays football very well.
He’s good at .

2 She wouldn’t let me pay the bill.
She insisted on .

3 I appreciate the money you lent me.
Thank you for .

4 Is golf the only sport you play?
Besides , are there any other sports you play?

5 It took me two years to learn to swim.
After two years I succeeded in .

6 I don’t intend to change my job.
I have no intention of .

7 Craig was a farmer before he became a teacher.
Craig was a teacher after .

8 I had a shower after I played tennis.
I played tennis before .

9 The flat was expensive, but we bought it.
In spite of , we bought the flat.

10 ‘Why don’t we go for a pizza?’ said Ruben.
‘How about ?’ said Ruben.
‘Do you feel like ?’ said Ruben.
‘What about ?’ said Ruben.


1. playing football
2. paying the bill
3. lending the money to me / lending me the money
4. playing golf
5. learning to swim / swimming
6. changing my job
7. being a farmer / becoming a farmer
8. having a shower
9. being expensive, we bought the flat
10. going for a pizza / going for a pizza / going for a pizza

 Otros ejercicios
 





A) Communicative approach
B) Grammatical aproach:



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