viernes, 4 de febrero de 2011

Simple past





# Se utiliza para referirse a acciones que se desarrollaron en el pasado y que hace ya algún tiempo que finalizaron. Su equivalente en castellano es el pretérito indefinido:

I studied English. Yo estudié inglés (fue una actividad que realicé en el pasado y que ya finalizó)
I bought a car. Yo compré un coche



# En estas oraciones no se da información sobre el presente:

I lost my job. Yo perdí mi trabajo (puede que en la actualidad lo haya vuelto a recuperar)
I bought a car. Yo compré un coche (en la actualidad puede que ya no tenga el coche, que lo haya vendido)


# Con frecuencia se indica el periodo de tiempo en el que se desarrolló la acción:

I played tennis yesterday. Yo jugué al tenis ayer.
I went to Paris last summer. Yo fui a París el verano pasado




# La estructura de la frase es similar a la del presente, utilizando el verbo principal en su forma pasada.

She listens to music. Ella escucha música (presente)
She listened to music. Ella escuchó música (pasado)


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# En las formas negativas e interrogativas se emplea, asimismo, una estructura similar: se utiliza el verbo auxiliar "to do" en su tiempo pasado, que acompaña al verbo principal en su forma infinitiva:

I didn´t go to the party. Yo no fui a la fiesta
Did you go to the party? ¿ Fuiste tú a la fiesta ?





# En la formación del tiempo pasado hay que distinguir entre verbos regulares e irregulares: los verbos regulares forman el tiempo pasado añadiendo "-ed" a la forma infinitiva (ver Lección 9º), mientras que los irregulares no siguen un patrón determinado, hay que estudiarlos individualmente (ver décima clase).

Verbo regular "To listen": forma pasada "listened".
Verbo irregular "To go": forma pasada "went"





# La forma pasada de los verbos es única para todas las personas, no hay una forma distinta para la 3ª persona del singular como ocurría en el presente.

I / you / he / she / we / they "listened"
I / you / he / she / we / they "went"








1.    to the cinema?¿Fuiste al cine?







2.   to the cinema.Yo no fui al cine







3. She   TV.Ella vio la televisión







4.   like his house.No me gustó su casa









5.    in the party?¿Bailó ella en la fiesta?








6. He   his watch.Él no encontró su reloj








7.    to Paris?¿Vinieron ellos a París?








8.    her boyfriend?¿Conociste a su novio?








9. We   the news.Nosotros no oímos las noticias








10.    a beer?¿Bebió él una cerveza?









  • Se forma añadiendo "-ed" al infinitivo:













  • Infinitivo Forma pasada
    To need (necesitar)needed
    To listen (escuchar)listened 










  • Si el infinitivo del verbo termina en "e", entonces tan sólo se le añade una "d":












  • Infinitivo Forma pasada
    To love (amar)loved
    To bribe (sobornar)bribed 










  • Si el infinitivo del verbo termina en "y", tras consonante, entonces esta letra "y" se transforma en "i" y se le añade "-ed".












  • Infinitivo Forma pasada
    To carry (llevar)carried
    To study (estudiar)studied 








  • Si el infinitivo del verbo está formado por una sola sílaba, con una sola vocal y termina en consonante, entonces esta consonante se dobla:













  • Infinitivo Forma pasada
    To stop (parar)stopped
    To ban (prohibir)banned 








  • También se dobla la última consonante de aquellos verbos de dos o más silabas, cuyo acento recae en la última sílaba, y ésta contiene una sola vocal y finaliza en una sola consonante:













  • Infinitivo Forma pasada
    To admit (admitir)admitted
    To prefer(preferir)preferred 








  • Por último, se dobla también la última consonante de aquellos verbos cuyo infinitivo termina por "l", tras una única vocal:












  • Infinitivo Forma pasada
    To signal (señalar)signalled
    To cancel (cancelar)cancelled 



    Forma pasada de los verbos regulares








    1.   To bat







    2.   To abolish








    3.   To clean







    4.   To invite







    5.   To pass







    6.   To obey







    7.   To try







    8.   To travel







    9.   To irritate







    10.   To compel




    Practica verbos irregulares

    Practica jugando



    En este enlace verás mas  temas sobre el pasado

     

    Simple Past

    FORM

    [VERB+ed] or irregular verbs
    Examples:
    • You called Debbie.
    • Did you call Debbie?
    • You did not call Debbie.
    Complete List of Simple Past Forms

    USE 1 Completed Action in the Past


    Use the Simple Past to express the idea that an action started and finished at a specific time in the past. Sometimes, the speaker may not actually mention the specific time, but they do have one specific time in mind.
    Examples:
    • I saw a movie yesterday.
    • I didn't see a play yesterday.
    • Last year, I traveled to Japan.
    • Last year, I didn't travel to Korea.
    • Did you have dinner last night?
    • She washed her car.
    • He didn't wash his car.

    USE 2 A Series of Completed Actions


    We use the Simple Past to list a series of completed actions in the past. These actions happen 1st, 2nd, 3rd, 4th, and so on.
    Examples:
    • I finished work, walked to the beach, and found a nice place to swim.
    • He arrived from the airport at 8:00, checked into the hotel at 9:00, and met the others at 10:00.
    • Did you add flour, pour in the milk, and then add the eggs?

    USE 3 Duration in Past


    The Simple Past can be used with a duration which starts and stops in the past. A duration is a longer action often indicated by expressions such as: for two years, for five minutes, all day, all year, etc.
    Examples:
    • I lived in Brazil for two years.
    • Shauna studied Japanese for five years.
    • They sat at the beach all day.
    • They did not stay at the party the entire time.
    • We talked on the phone for thirty minutes.
    • A: How long did you wait for them?
      B: We waited for one hour.

    USE 4 Habits in the Past


    The Simple Past can also be used to describe a habit which stopped in the past. It can have the same meaning as "used to." To make it clear that we are talking about a habit, we often add expressions such as: always, often, usually, never, when I was a child, when I was younger, etc.
    Examples:
    • I studied French when I was a child.
    • He played the violin.
    • He didn't play the piano.
    • Did you play a musical instrument when you were a kid?
    • She worked at the movie theater after school.
    • They never went to school, they always skipped class.

    USE 5 Past Facts or Generalizations


    The Simple Past can also be used to describe past facts or generalizations which are no longer true. As in USE 4 above, this use of the Simple Past is quite similar to the expression "used to."
    Examples:
    • She was shy as a child, but now she is very outgoing.
    • He didn't like tomatoes before.
    • Did you live in Texas when you were a kid?
    • People paid much more to make cell phone calls in the past.

    IMPORTANT When-Clauses Happen First

    Clauses are groups of words which have meaning but are often not complete sentences. Some clauses begin with the word "when" such as "when I dropped my pen..." or "when class began..." These clauses are called when-clauses, and they are very important. The examples below contain when-clauses.
    Examples:
    • When I paid her one dollar, she answered my question.
    • She answered my question when I paid her one dollar.
    When-clauses are important because they always happen first when both clauses are in the Simple Past. Both of the examples above mean the same thing: first, I paid her one dollar, and then, she answered my question. It is not important whether "when I paid her one dollar" is at the beginning of the sentence or at the end of the sentence. However, the example below has a different meaning. First, she answered my question, and then, I paid her one dollar.
    Example:
    • I paid her one dollar when she answered my question.

    ADVERB PLACEMENT

    The examples below show the placement for grammar adverbs such as: always, only, never, ever, still, just, etc.
    Examples:
    • You just called Debbie.
    • Did you just call Debbie?

    ACTIVE / PASSIVE

    Examples:
    • Tom repaired the car. Active
    • The car was repaired by Tom. Passive





    Para hacer preguntas


    La forma interrogativa se compone del auxiliar DID seguido de la persona y el verbo en infinitivo. El auxiliar es igual para todas las personas.







    TO GO
    Did I go ?
    Did You go ?
    Did He go ?
    Did She go ?
    Did It go ?
    Did We go ?
    Did You go ?
    Did They go ?

    Para realizar una pregunta se usa la "question word" adelante.
    Where did you go?
    ¿Dónde fuiste?

    When did you go to London?
    ¿Cúando fuiste a Londres? 
    La forma negativa se compone de la persona, seguido del auxiliar DID, seguido de NOT y el verbo en infinitivo. En lenguaje informal, puede usarse la forma contracta didn't.








    TO GO
    I did not go = I didn't go
    You did not go = You didn't go
    He did not go = He didn't go
    She did not go = She didn't go
    It did not go = It didn't go
    We did not go = We didn't go
    You did not go = You didn't go
    They did not go = They didn't go

    Presentamos aquí una pequeña lista de algunos verbos irregulares con su pasado simple. Intenta recordarlos!







    INFINITIVO PASADO SIMPLE
    go (ir) went
    have (tener) had
    write (escribir) wrote
    read (leer) read
    catch (atrapar) caught
    fall (caer) fell
    hear (escuchar) heard
    see (ver) saw
    say (decir) said
    give (dar) gave
    know (saber) knew

    Para obtener una lista completa de verbos irregulares con sus formas de pasado simple, ver List of irregular verbs.




    Completa con la forma pasada (Simple Past) del verbo. Por ejemplo: go - went.
    Si cometes errores, se recomienda repasar los temas y volver a realizar los ejercicios.

    go -
    visit -
    cook -
    catch -
    see -
    recover -
    invite -
    discover -
    look -
    know -









    Reescribe las siguientes oraciones en su forma negativa. Respeta las mayúsculas, minúsculas y signos de puntuación. Usa las formas cortas de los verbos siempre que sea posible.


    1. The people screamed.

    2. Lisa was very happy.

    3. You went to Paris last year.

    4. Sofia visited her grandmother yesterday.

    5. I was in Hong Kong last month.

    6. John went to the cinema last week.

    7. Shakespeare wrote a lot of books.

    8. You were at school yesterday.

    9. It was very cold yesterday.






    ...
    Reescribe las siguientes oraciones en tiempo pasado simple. Respeta las mayúsculas, minúsculas y signos de puntuación.


    1. I go to school in the morning.

    2. Diane is very tired.

    3. You are at home.

    4. I have breakfast.

    5. Thomas and Nick play tennis all day.

    6. The plane arrives at half past ten.

    7. I study English at home.

    8. They stay all night in front of the computer.

    9. It is ten past eleven.


    ...

    Completa con la forma pasada (Simple Past) del verbo. Por ejemplo: go - went.
    Si cometes errores, se recomienda repasar los temas y volver a realizar los ejercicios.

    1. We (go) to Barcelona last year.
    2. We (spend) two weeks there.
    3. There (is) many tourists.
    4. We (rent) a small house.
    5. We (visit) many places there.
    6. We (take) many photographs.

    ...



    En este ejercicio podrás practicar el uso correcto de los verbos. Lee atentamente las oraciones y completa los recuadros con la forma de Simple Past de los verbos que se encuentran entre paréntesis.


    1. The film (not begin) late at the cinema yesterday.
    2. I hurt myself when I (fall) off my bike.
    3. He (not forget) to do the homework.
    4. I (want) a new pair of trainers but this shop (not sell) them.
    5. My mum (make) pizza for lunch today.
    6. (you read) the book the teacher (tell) us to read?
    7. When (they meet) ?
    8. Who (she speak) to yesterday?
    9. What time (he arrive) from school?
    10. Pau (learn) all the verbs in a week. 


     

    Como se construye una frase
    + Afirmativo
    - Negativo
    ? interogativa
    Adverbios

    El pasado del verbo "to be" 

    Ejemplos del pasado simple
    La historia de Cenicienta
    La vida de Lady Diana
    Chistes 1 2 3 4

    Exercises on Simple Past

    Tests

    Grammar in Texts


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